Oblivious Transfer from Zero-Knowledge Proofs, or How to Achieve Round-Optimal Quantum Oblivious Transfer and Zero-Knowledge Proofs on Quantum States


Séminaire AMAC: CASC

16/04/2024 - 15:30 Léo Colisson (CWI/QuSoft, Amsterdam, Pays-Bas) IMAG 106

We provide a generic construction to turn any classical Zero-Knowledge (ZK) protocol into a composable (quantum) oblivious transfer (OT) protocol, mostly lifting the round-complexity properties and security guarantees (plain-model/statistical security/unstructured functions…) of the ZK protocol to the resulting OT protocol. Such a construction is unlikely to exist classically as Cryptomania is believed to be different from Minicrypt.

In particular, by instantiating our construction using Non-Interactive ZK (NIZK), we provide the first round-optimal (2-message) quantum OT protocol secure in the random oracle model, and round-optimal extensions to string and k-out-of-n OT.
At the heart of our construction lies a new method that allows us to prove properties on a received quantum state without revealing additional information on it, even in a non-interactive way, without public-key primitives, and/or with statistical guarantees when using an appropriate classical ZK protocol. We can notably prove that a state has been partially measured (with arbitrary constraints on the set of measured qubits), without revealing any additional information on this set. This notion can be seen as an analog of ZK to quantum states, and we expect it to be of independent interest as it extends complexity theory to quantum languages, as illustrated by the two new complexity classes we introduce, ZKstatesQIP and ZKstatesQMA.